Phase retrieval for short wavelength orbital angular momentum beams using knife-edge diffraction
Liu, P; Yan, J; Hao, H; Wu, YK
Laser beams operating in high order transverse modes, especially orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes, have been used increasingly in many frontier research areas. The characterization of these laser modes and the related component analysis can be carried out using the retrieved optical phase. However, conventional iterative phase retrieval methods, when applied to pure OAM modes, may fail because their convergence depends on the choice of the initial phase. Here, we present an improved phase retrieval method which can incorporate additional phase information obtained using knife-edge diffraction. Using no additional optics or few optics available in a wide spectral range, this method is particularly suitable for short wavelength lasers such as free-electron lasers (FELs) in the VUV, EUV, and X-ray regimes. This method has been tested using simulated beams, and successfully applied to experimentally generated beams from a HeNe laser and an FEL.